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Dental Caries

Cavities

Filings

A Cavity or dental caries develops when a tooth or part of the tooth gets infected with bacteria and breaks down.It develops a hole that can grow bigger and deeper as it progresses.
Internal staining of dentine can discolor the teeth from inside out. Internal bleaching can remedy this. If heavy staining or tetracycline damage is present on a patient's teeth, and whitening is ineffective, there are other methods of whitening teeth. Bonding, when a thin coating of composite material is applied to the front of a person's teeth and then cured with a blue light can be performed to mask the staining. A veneer can also mask tooth discoloration.
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The 3 main factors involved in tooth decay are:
1)  Broken or fractured Teeth.
2)  Cosmetic Enhancement.
3)  Plaque or Bacteria


The combination of these 3 factors leads to formation of cavities. Inside mouth ,various bacteria are present. When you eat sticky or sugary foods, these bacteria change some of the sugars in foods to acids.Now the bacteria which are present in oral cavity join with these acids and form plaque.The plaque acids stick on the tooth substances and attack the outermost layer of the tooth called enamel. The acids then continue to attack the inside parts of the tooth. This is what leads to TOOTHACHE!!

Cavities - A Cavity develops when a tooth or part of the tooth gets infected with bacteria and breaks down.It develops a hole that can grow bigger and deeper as it progresses.

Treatment of Cavities- Early Detection and Treatment:
When you gets a pain in the tooth or jaw or an ear ache , or throbbing in the mouth, it is generally due to a cavity. For immediate relief , a pain killer can be given after consulting with the dentist. Next a dental appointment must be fixed . The dentist will examine the tooth to check if there is a cavity.A radiograph may be needed to identify the cavity . Once the reason for pain is confirmed , treatment can be done. Restoration or Filling:- A radiograph shows the complete extent and location of the cavity .The dentist will fix tooth decay by removing the rotted part of the tooth with a drill and then filling the hole in the tooth with a special filling material . the material could be a resin or a combination depending on which tooth has the cavity . So the choice is between :


1) Glass Ionomer Filling Matierals
2) Composites
3) Silver Amalgam
4) Inlay

A dental restoration or dental filling is a dental restorative material used to restore the function, integrity and morphology of missing tooth structure. The structural loss typically results from caries or external trauma. It is also lost intentionally during tooth preparation to improve the aesthetics or the physical integrity of the intended restorative material. Dental restoration also refers to the replacement of missing tooth structure which is supported by dental implants.

Dental restorations can be divided into two broad types: direct restorations and indirect restorations. All dental restorations can be further classified by their location and size. A root canal filling is a restorative technique used to fill the space where the dental pulp normally resides.

 

Tooth preparation

 

Tooth preparation is usually required before placing a dental restoration. This process involves cutting the tooth usually with a dental drill to make space for the planned restoration, remove any dental decay and structurally unsound tooth. If permanent restoration can not be carried out after tooth preparation, temporary restoration is done.

A tooth preparation is the finished product of a tooth's structure prior to restoration with a dental restorative material, such as gold, amalgam, composite, porcelain or any number of other materials.

There are two types of preparations.

Intracoronal preparations are those preparations which serve to hold restorative material within the confines of the structure of the crown of a tooth. Examples include all classes of cavity preparations for composite or amalgam, as well as those for gold and porcelain inlays. Intracoronal preparations are also made as female recipients to receive the male components of Removable partial dentures.

Extracoronal preparations are those preparations which serve as a core or base upon which or around which restorative material will be placed to bring the tooth back into a functional or aesthetic structure. Examples include crowns and onlays, as well as veneers.

In preparing a tooth for a restoration, a number of considerations will come into play to determine the type and extent of the preparation. The most important factor to consider is decay. For the most part, the extent of the decay will define the extent of the preparation, and in turn, the subsequent method and appropriate materials for restoration.

Amalgam Fillings ( Silver Fillings )

Amalgam fillings are also named as silver fillings. They are prepared by amalgamating the silver, tin and copper alloy with mercury. Mercury makes %45-50 of the compound and acts as a bond between the metals resulting in a highly strong filling. Amalgam which is improved through the almost 150 years that is on the market has widely served and is still serving to maintain teeth in mouth.

 

Glass ionomer cement

As they bond chemically to dental hard tissues and release fluoride for a relatively long period modern day applications of GICs have expanded. The desirable properties of glass ionomer cements make them useful materials in the restoration of carious lesions in low-stress areas such as smooth-surface and small anterior proximal cavities in primary teeth. Results from clinical studies also support the use of conventional glass ionomer restorations in primary molars. They need not be put in layer by layer, like in composite fillings.

 

Composite Fillings( Tooth coloured fillings)

They are esthetic restorations that are generally used in the front teeth. But for the past two or three decades the has been tremendous improvements in the chemistry and bonding properties of those fillings so that nowadays even at the back molar teeth we confidentely are placing composite fillings because of their high strenght capacity against occlusal forces.

 

Inlays-Onlays

Inlays and onlays are fabricated, casted restorations thar are indicated for very large tooth losses which otherwise need to be crowned. After removing the decay and shaping the cavity impressions are taken and sent to the laboratory for either gold, composite or porcelain inlays and onlays. After they arrive from laboratory they are bonded in place with special cements and techniques. They require special and precise techniques.